Thursday, January 16, 2020

Genetic Engineering in Food Production Essay

Genetic Engineering in Food Production: Is it Safe, Wise, and Moral? Over the past couple of decades, the genetic engineering has been found and is regarded as the improvement of advanced technology in the field of biology. Ever since the first gene was cloned in 1973, genetic engineers have been pursuing at break-neck speed the unlimited possibilities promised by biotechnology . Their excitement, which has generated billions of investment dollars for the industry, is understandable. Bioengineering allows scientists to identify specific gene sequences responsible for particular characteristics and then to transfer the genes — and the specific trait — into entirely different species. One of the more current and controversial issue in the field of biotechnology is the use of bioengineering in food production. Scientists are experimenting with many different plants, but the genetic engineering of the tomato, dubbed Flavr Savr has been the most highly publicized project by far. The new tomato is supposed to boast more red and be tastier due to its longer staying time on the vine, thereby giving it more time to accumulate sweetness; yet, it will not rot or spoil because of its new genetic makeup. (Davidson 1993). With this advanced technology scientists argue that it could offer the greatest hope in the aid to stop hunger in Third World countries. This new technology could be used to make bulk levels of food production more efficient and less costly. However, despite all of its advantages in creating better crops, many people are very skeptical about its safe and possible long-term health effects. Moreover, the social issue lies deep in the realm of ethical and moral concerns. Do people really want to eat meat that is leaner and tastier but contains genes from humans? Or, would individuals (like vegetarians) be able to eat certain vegetables that may contain genes from animals? Personally, I would not support the use of genetic engineering in food production based on moral and ethical reasons: I do not think that scientists should be able to use their knowledge and social prestige in society to be able to play the role of God in creating new or better living things even if their justification is for the purpose of serving mankind. Although we still have much to learn about genes, recently developed techniques have already given rise to a new technology of molecular genetics. Genetic engineering, also known as gene splicing/manipulation and recombinant DNA technology is a set of techniques for reconstructing, or deliberately manipulating, the genetic material of an organism. Operating at the molecular level, this process involves the addition, deletion, or reorganization of pieces of an organism’s DNA (known as genes) in order to alter that organism’s protein production (Arms et al. 1994). The use and applications of genetic engineering range from medical and pharmaceutical to industrial crops and food products. Its applications, today or in the future, include†¦creating improved strains of crops and farm animals (Arms et al. 1994). All of these applications rely on the ability to transplant genes into a cell’s makeup, or genome. The new gene may come from another organism, of the same species, or it may contain DNA produced in the laboratory. One example, the new Flavr Savr tomato, developed by Calgene, a biotechnology company based in Davis, California, was subjected to years of scrutiny before the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) agreed that it was safe to eat. They found, copied, and rebuilt a gene that lets these tomatoes stay on the vine without softening and spoiling. That means that the fruit can develop more of the sugars and acids that make a home-grown tomato taste so sweet and rich. Conventional tomatoes sold in the stores are often hard and flavorless because they are picked while green and firm enough to transport, then ‘ripened’ by spraying with ethylene (Wood 1995). This turns the tomato red but does nothing to develop a riper flavor. Ethylene, a colorless, odorless gas that once kicks in, so do all the problems of perishability (Wood 1995). Since tomatoes have a softening gene, it produces RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) to help manufacture a protein that causes rotting. To stop the tomatoes going soft too soon, the researchers devised a way to block production of the enzyme polygalacturonase, which breaks down cell walls and eventually causes the fruit to rot (Miller 1994). The Calgene scientists inserted a mirror image of the softening gene that produces a reverse copy of the RNA. This reverse RNA blocks the action of the regular RNA and helps to preserve the fruit. All in all, Calgene seems to have produced a good but hardly outstanding tomato using antisense technology, given all the propaganda and advertisements. A couple of the reasons for why the tomato failed were because: (a) the manipulation of the ripening gene had unintended consequences (soft skin, weird taste, compositional changes); and (b) the high price — they tried selling it at first for$2. 99 a pound (as expensive as organic tomatoes), then later dropped the price to $2. 49, then $1. 99, then . 99. Furthermore, the general public does not seem persuaded or have caught up with this trend yet. For one, people are greatly concerned about the safety of the product since the FDA does not insist that genetically engineered foods carry a special label, even though the FDA assured consumers that they can be confident in knowing that foods produced by genetic engineering are as safe as food in our grocery stores today, stated FDA Commissioner David A. Kessler, MD (Miller 1994). However, critics have cited a case in which at least 31 people died and 1500 contracted a fatal blood disease after ingesting a genetically engineered batch of L-trytophan, a dietary supplement (Davidson 1993). Without proper labeling it will be impossible for consumers to exercise their right to choose what kind of foods they eat. Another issue among consumers and environmental activist groups is that of moral and ethical concerns. Many people feel that scientists might have gone too far in terms of experimentation. We have now come to the end of the familiar pathway of leaving everything to the creation of Mother Nature. With the rise of advanced technology in genetics, scientists now possess the ability to manipulate genes, and redirect the course of evolution. They can reassemble old genes and devise new ones. They can plan, and with computer simulation, anticipate the future forms and paths of life. Hence, the old ways of evolution will be dwarfed by the role of purposeful human intelligence. However, just as nature stumbled upon life billions of years ago and began the process of evolution, so too would the new creators of life find that living organisms all have a destiny of their own. To evaluate the validity of the benefits of this technology, we need to answer three simple questions: Is it safe, is it wise, is it moral? Sinsheimer 1987). To answer the first question about whether it is safe, if the technological developments are kept open to public knowledge and scrutiny, I think in the short term it could be. This way the general public can monitor the hazards of any new product introduced into the biosphere, and can probably cope with any immediate problems or consequences. In answering the second question of whether it is wise, I would say that it is not. Through decades of research, scientists have learned of the different pathogens that prey on humans, animals, and major crops. But I believe that their knowledge is still very limited in trying to understand what led to these organisms’ existence and modes of adaptation. Thus scientists cannot really predict whether all their new discoveries and creations might somehow lead to a new and unexpected group of harmful species since potential organisms that could be converted by one or more mutations be transformed from harmless bugs to serious risks. Finally, to answer the question of the advantages of genetic engineering in terms of morality and ethics, I can only say that the more we create, the more problems we will have in the long run in trying to solve them. Life has evolved on this planet into a delicately balanced and fragile network of selfsustaining interactions and equilibrium. If we try to change or replace the creatures and vegetation of this earth with human-designed forms to conform to human will, I believe we will forget our origins and inadvertently collapse the ecological system in which we were found. Moreover, do we really want to assume the full responsibility for the structure and make-up of our world? I think that we seriously need to intervene between the scientists and engineers to consider a solution that will help slow down all of these experiments so that we could step back and look at what we are doing. If not, I think that these practicing scientists and researchers should be more broadly educated in our humanistic values and traditions. They need to understand the implications of what they are doing in order to be able to balance the concerns of the natural environment and that of society’s humanistic needs; to bear in mind that technology exists only to serve and not create. Human beings, are of course, sprung from the same DNA and built of the same molecules as all other livings things. But if we begin to regard ourselves as just another group of subjects to test our experiments on by altering or tampering with the foods we eat, just like another crop to be engineered or another breed to be perfected, we will surely lose our awe of humanity and undermine all sense of human dignity.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Felicity Conditions Definition and Examples

In  pragmatics  (the study of how to do things with words)  and speech-act theory, the term felicity conditions refers to the conditions that must be in place and the criteria that must be satisfied for a speech act to achieve its purpose. In other words, says Mark Liberman, an instructor at the  University of Pennsylvania, a sentence must not only be  grammatical  to be correctly performed, it must also be  felicitous, or well-suited for the purpose. English Language and Linguistics Online  (ELLO) gives the example of a marriage scene in a movie: Have you ever asked yourself  why the words I now pronounce you husband and wife do not create a legal marriage between two people when uttered in the context of a film set? Of course, the actors in the scene are not really legally married, even if they both say I do, before the thespian justice of the peace or clergyperson recites these words. The conditions are not in place and the criteria are not satisfied for this  speech act  to achieve its purpose—namely that the bride and groom enter into a marriage that is legally binding. And the person officiating has no legal authority to pronounce the two husband and wife. Thus, the speech act in the movie marriage scene is not felicitous. Types of Felicity Conditions There are several types of felicitous conditions, notes ELLO, including the following: Propositional content, which requires participants to understand language, not to  act  like actorsPreparatory, where the authority of the speaker and the circumstances of the speech act are appropriate to its being performed successfullySincerity, where the speech act is being performed seriously and sincerelyEssential, where the  speaker intends that an utterance be acted upon by the addressee For example, Patrick Colm Hogan in Philosophical Approaches to the Study of Literature describes felicity conditions with this example: Suppose I am in a play and deliver the line I promise to kill the evil Don Fernando. I have not, in fact, promised to kill anyone. ... The speech act  fails because, among other things, I must have a certain institutional authority for my words to have the appropriate  illocutionary force. ... [The] speech act [also] fails because the words are uttered in a  context  where they are not used by the speaker, but in effect quoted from a text. In this example, Hogans speech is infelicitous because he does not meet the propositional content condition: He  is actually acting. He also does not meet the preparatory condition because he certainly  does not have the authority to kill anyone. He doesnt meet the sincerity condition because he doesnt actually intend to kill anyone—as noted, he is only acting. And he doesnt meet the essential condition because hes not expecting that his words will be acted upon; in other words, he doesnt actually intend for someone else to kill Fernando. Other Examples and Observations Performatives  are  utterances  in which saying is doing, and they are only successful if certain  felicity conditions  are fulfilled, says author  Guy Cook in his book Discourse  (Language Teaching: A Scheme for Teacher Education). For a speech act to be felicitous, says Cook: The sender believes the action should be done.The receiver has the ability to do the action.The receiver has the obligation to do the action.The sender has the right to tell the receiver to do the action. If  any one  of these conditions is not fulfilled, the utterances  are not felicitous. The reason is that felicity conditions are conventions that speakers and addressees use as a code to produce and recognize actions, says psychology professor William Turnbull in Language in Action: Psychological Models of Conversation. In other words, says Turnbull, for felicity conditions to exist, the speaker must utter words that are heard by receivers. The receiver then should take some kind of action based on those words. If the speaker is unintelligible, lacks the authority or status to speak those words, or is insincere, then her utterances are infelicitous. If the listener doesnt act on those words, then the speech is infelicitous. Only if all of these conditions are met  are the utterances from the speaker considered felicitous. Sources Cook, Guy. Discourse (Language Teaching: A Scheme for Teacher Education). Paperback, 1st Edition edition, OUP Oxford, June 29, 1989. Hogan, Patrick Colm. Philosophical Approaches to the Study of Literature. Hardcover, 1st edition, University Press of Florida, September 30, 2001. Turnbull, William. Language in Action: Psychological Models of Conversation. International Series in Social Psychology, 1st Edition, Routledge, April 13, 2003.

Tuesday, December 31, 2019

The Freedom Of Expression And Information Is Essential For...

Throughout the world, human rights are viewed in many different ways. While some individuals take their rights for granted or view them as privileges, others view them as nonexistent. The reason people view them as nonexistent is because often times their human rights are violated by unfair economic structures and corrupt government systems. In order to best understand human rights, one must focus on the base that forms all of them, and that base is freedom of expression. When citizens are given the freedom to express one’s opinions and thoughts as well as the freedom to listen and explore others opinions and thoughts, it is then when a democracy can be formed. However, many countries around the world seek to function as democracies but fail to do so because their governments deny their citizens the freedom to have a voice. Therefore, it is dictatorships and struggling democracies, such as the one present in Eretria, that demonstrate how the right to freedom of expression and information is essential for the promotion and preservation of democracy. Eretria’s government uses a combination of media monopoly, restriction from technology, the threat of journalist incarceration, and restriction of journalist’s movement in the country, to maintain power and create anything, but a democracy. Eritrea’s oppressive media climate is largely due to its long history of a corrupt government system. The country declared its independence from Ethiopia in 1993 and has since been under theShow MoreRelatedCensorship Of The Media By Herbert Foerstel3055 Words   |  13 Pagesinitially imposed penalties for any false talk about the king and later covered such expression about any government officials† [Foerstel, 1998: 4] Censorship of the media - as described by Herbert Foerstel - took shape during the reign of King Edward I. 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Monday, December 23, 2019

Is It A Quality Premium Or Not Essay - 1601 Words

So, you are taking, with high growth comes two risks; one is growth of execution, and the other is the valuation risk that comes with it. So, not only is growth investing risky, but it is really risky. And, I think, that is where we have evolved quite a bit as well, respected of whether there is a growth background or not a growth background. I wouldn’t call ourselves gap investors, because what I do think is important is, so, here is an open question that we don’t have an answer for. But, rather than saying should there be a growth premium or not, I think a better question is, should there be a quality premium or not. And, what is the quality premium and how do you think about it. I guess, back in the day you would think about a peg ratio, so as now is a peq ratio or something like that where what is the right unit of valuation premium you should pay for each incremental unit of quality. We have actually spent a ton of time thinking about this and working on it. So, valuation absolutely plays a role in this and I think we have to think about the relation, not have to, we do think about the relationship between quality and valuation. What I am kind of implying here, in theory, is that maybe the quality valuation premium is more warranted than it is for a growth. And, also, more sustainable. Now, that is an open question, but that is our theory. And, thus, you know, we still want to, so this is critical to where we spend a lot of research time, to dumb it down to say,Show MoreRelatedForecasting Quality Grade And Certified Angus Beef Premiums By Joe Parcel1065 Words   |  5 Pages The data I chose to analyze is an article entitled, Forecasting Quality Grade and Certified Angus Beef Premiums, by Joe Parcel. This article analyzes the risk and uncertainty of forecasting the future prices of premiums in certified Angus beef grid pricing. 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Sunday, December 15, 2019

The Mind-Body Issue in Science Free Essays

Neuroscience is the study of the brain and psychology is†¦well, the answer to that question is not exactly clear.   A direct interpretation of the word â€Å"psychology† boils down to â€Å"the study of the psyche† or â€Å"the knowledge of the psyche†, but psychology does not have a definition of the psyche and, in general, they do not believe in it.   Psyche comes from the Greek word meaning soul, so the psyche is actually the study of the soul, and yet psychology today has more or less become a study of the mind, and ironic situation since neither psychologists nor neuroscientists believe in the existence of the mind. We will write a custom essay sample on The Mind-Body Issue in Science or any similar topic only for you Order Now The generally held accepted view of the mind is that the mind arises from the activity of the brain.   Thus, a major philosophical concern of neuroscience is, â€Å"Does the mind exist separate and independent of the brain?†Ã‚   The generally accepted answer to this question is, â€Å"No.   The mind is an epiphenomenon that arises from brain activity.†Ã‚   In the past, efforts were made to resolve this problem with philosophical arguments such as Fredric Weizmann’s ideas about genetics and embryology (Forsdyke, 1999) and Michael M. Sokal ideas about phrenology. Today, we can conclude that the mind/body problem of science has been successfully resolved despite the obvious fact that the resolution has yet to be recognized or acknowledged!   We can now take pride that the resolution to this dilemma did not result in confirming the â€Å"pervasive† 19th-century fear humans might ultimately be viewed as â€Å"mere machines† lacking souls. (Jacyna, 1994) Despite the generally accepted view that the mind is merely an epiphenomenon that arises from brain activity, more or less superimposed over brain activity, there is actually no evidence to support the idea.   To date, all of the available data, without exception, suggests that the mind and the brain are two separate but interacting ‘things’.   Whatever evidence that does not suggest this is neutral.   The evidence is sufficiently strong to have swayed diehard monists (who believe that the mind is the brain) into becoming dualists (who believe that the mind and the brain are separate). Upon a review of the available data at the end of his life, the late neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield, MD (1891 – 1976), a former monist, concluded the evidence, â€Å"†¦it comes as a surprise now to discover, during this final examination of the evidence, that the dualist hypothesis seems the more reasonable of the two possible explanations.† (Penfield, 1975)   Although the available data may support Penfield’s conclusion, there are still some interesting, intriguing and difficult questions to answer such as, â€Å"What is the realm of consciousness and the mind,† â€Å"How does consciousness and the mind and the realm of mind relate to the brain and the physical body,† and â€Å"Does a mind exist independent of the brain and the physical body?†Ã‚   We can briefly address each of these questions separately. The central problem with the dualist point of view is that the mind exists as an abstraction unless it arises from brain activity.   If the mind exists separate and independent of the brain, the answer to our first question is that the mind exists as an abstract field as proposed around the 1920s by developmental biologist Paul Weiss. (Weiss, 1926)   Then, in the mid and late 1930s, Dr. Harold Saxton Burr and his associates discovered just such a field. (Burr and Lane, 1935; Burr and Northrop, 1939) Dr. Burr discovered that all living things are molded and controlled by invisible and intangible electro-dynamic fields, that he called â€Å"L-fields† for the â€Å"fields of life†.   John White and Stanley Krippner call the L-field the â€Å"‘bridge’ or intermediate link between the mental and the physical†¦they offer evidence that the mind and body are quite separate†¦.† (White and Krippner, 1977) If Burr’s findings are correct, it seems apparent that consciousness and the mind are electrodynamic fields that interact with the physical body.   Burr was able to make a definitive connection between the L-field and wound healing and between the L-field and the mental functions and mental states of individuals. Burr and his colleagues found that they could make impersonal, objective measurements of the mental and emotional states of psychiatric patients and that their electrical measurements generally agreed closely with psychiatric diagnoses.   Consciousness and the mind somehow relate to the brain and the physical body through an electrical connection or bridge of sorts, forces associated with and coupled to cells. (Jerndal, 1982) Finally, although the preferred view of the mind-body/mind-brain issue in neuroscience and psychology is the monistic view which states that the mind is merely an epiphenomenon that arises from brain activity, it is apparent that the mind transcends physical functions of the body, but there are concerns such as can more detailed studies be provided to determine if the mind can be associated with the L-field?   Burr, Ravitz and their colleagues provided evidence that established a relationship between nerve and other tissue and that made useful neurological and psychiatric measurements that were associated with mental functions. Therefore, they succeeded in establishing a firm connection between an abstract but very real field and the tangible nervous system.   This data provides concrete evidence for the existence of an independent mind that transcends the functions of the physical body.   Thus, it appears that the mind-brain and mind-body issue can be laid to rest.   Now, the problem is, â€Å"How to get the word out.†Ã‚   Perhaps that leaves us right back where we started, at least for now. References Becker, Robert O. and Gary Selden (1985).   THE BODY ELECTRIC.   Electromagnetism and The Foundation of Life.   New York, NY: Quill, William Morrow. Burr, H. S. (1952).   Electrometrics of Atypical Growth.   Yale J. Biol. Med., 25, 67-75. Burr, H. S. (1972).   The Fields of Life:   Our Links with the Universe.   New York, NY:   Ballantine Books. Burr, H. S., and Lane, C. T. (1935).   Electrical Characteristics of Living Systems.   Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 8, 31-35. Burr, H. S., and Northrop, F. S. C. (1939).   Evidence for the Existence of An Electrodynamic Field in the Living Organisms.   Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, U.S.A., 25, 284-288. Eccles, Sir John C. (1951).   Hypotheses Relating To The Brain-Mind Problem.   Nature, 168(4263), 53-57. Forsdyke, D. R. (1999). Two levels of information in DNA: Relationship of Romanes’ â€Å"intrinsic† variability of the reproductive system, and Bateson’s â€Å"residue† to the species-dependent component of the base composition, (C + G) %. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 201, 47-61 Jacyna, L. S. (1994). Philosophic whigs: Medicine, science and citizenship in Edinburgh 1789-1848. London: Routledge. Jerndal, Jens (1982).   The Field Resonance Approaching Medicine.   Text of a Paper presented at the 3rd World Congress of Alternative Medicine, Colombo, Sri Lanka 22nd October, 1982. Penfield, Wilder (1975).  Ã‚   The Mystery of the Mind:   A Critical Study of Consciousness and the Human Brain.   Princeton, NJ:   Princeton University Press. Weiss, P. A. (1926)   â€Å"Morphodynamik:   Ein Einblick in die Gesetzte der organischen Gestaltung an Hand von experimentellen Ergebnissen,† in Abhandlungen zur theoretischen Biologie, (J. Schaxel, ed.), Gebruder Borntraeger, Berlin. White, John, and Krippner, Stanley (1977).   Future Science.   Life Energies and the Physics of Paranormal Phenomena.   Garden City, NY:   Anchor Books.       How to cite The Mind-Body Issue in Science, Essay examples

Saturday, December 7, 2019

Creativity and Innovation Management †Free Samples to Students

Question: Discuss about the Creativity and Innovation Management Syetem. Answer: Introduction Dell Inc. is an American multinational, founded in the year 1984. The company is into computer and related products. Dell is also moving into new areas such as cybersecurity and data center design and management, and letting those new units operate more autonomously. The company has a revenue of $54 billion and it has close to100000 employees. Dell Inc. is in the elaboration stage of organizational lifecycle. In this stage part of the organization many split or be reformed such as Dell is doing (Bull Jobstvogt, 2016). Since this is so, this explains the process Dell is going through by seeing there are problems and producing formal solutions and controls to safeguard the organizations. Dell has its subsidiaries in various markets. The objective of this paper is to discuss the strategic analysis framework for one of the subsidiary of Dell Inc. The paper would discuss various internal and external factors that affects Dell Inc. in Indian market. It would include the factors like PEST, SWOT, etc. Based on the strategic analysis, the paper also discusses some of the recommendations for Dell Inc. in Indian market. The decision to return Dell back to the companys entrepreneurial roots by affording divisions a level of autonomy similar to start-up companies could be seen as a wise move based on strategic decision making by founder Michael Dell. The PEST analysis for Dells subsidiary in Indian market can be discussed as: The factors under the PEST analysis can be discussed as: Political Legal: The political and legal factors are positive for Dell Inc. as governments want that the companies in computer and IT sector to grow as it would mean more job opportunities in the region (Cricelli Greco, 2013). India is a developing country and current government is pro development. The Indian government has opened its arms for foreign players. Economic: The economic factors are positive and it is expected that the economy of developed and developing nations would continue to grow at decent growth rate. It is expected that Indian economy would continue to grow at a CAGR (Compounded Annual Growth Rate) of 6% (Kiron Kruschwitz, 2013). Social: Today, laptops have emerged as a necessity for different people. Therefore, the social factors can be termed as positive. In India, the laptop has become a necessity product for high class people, students and upper middle class. It is expected that the penetration of laptop would further increase in the Indian market. Technological: There has been several advancements in IT industry. The technology factors are positive for players in this industry. However, the only factor of concern is the low product life. India has seen various technological advancements and it is expected that the technological factors would remain positive for Dell in India market. SWOT analysis The SWOT analysis for Dell Inc. India subsidiary can be discussed as: STRENGTHS The ability to provide customized laptops with minimum lead time. The effective and efficient supply chain that helps Dell to optimize its cost of operation be it in any part of the world The strong legacy of Dell and its brand name in the market The cost leadership advantage that Dell has in various markets WEAKNESSES It seems to me that Dell, Inc. is an organization in the midst of what Daft (2015) described as the elaboration stage. One of major weaknesses of Dell is its internal bureaucracy. Another weakness of the company is limited visibility of mid-level management in the organizations. THREATS The biggest threat for Dell is the threat from competition like HP and Sony. HP and Sony are big name in Indian market and captures a good amount of market. There also exists threat from the external factors like legal factors in different regions, the government regulations, fluctuating market conditions, etc. There also exists some threat from the suppliers as they can increase the cost of raw material (Cricelli Greco, 2013) Another threat is the low switching cost of customers. Indian consumers are price sensitive and they have less brand loyalty OPPORTUNITIES Huge opportunity of standard products in emerging markets: When Dell first come out it only offered products that were custom built and had to be ordered direct from Dell. Although this strategy worked well at the onset, consumers often do not want to wait and are happy with the off-the-self model that could be found in their local area at retailers even it is a limited selection as it competitors have. Porter five forces analysis The five forces analysis for computer and electronics industry can be discussed as: Bargaining power of suppliers: The bargaining power of suppliers is average. The companies like Dell has the options to choose from number of suppliers. At the same time, there also exists some threat from the suppliers as they can increase the cost of raw material. Dell does not have its suppliers base in India. However, it has to source materials form its international supplier base. Bargaining power of buyers: The bargaining power of buyer is high as customer switching cost is very low. Indian consumers are price sensitive and they have less brand loyalty. They would easily switch to HP or Sony or any other brand, Threat of new entrants: The threat of new entrants is average. The entry barriers are limited. However, it is difficult to achieve the scale of large companies like Dell and HP (Colombo, 2016). Threat of substitutes: The threat of substitute is high in this industry. In recent times, the tablets and mobile phones have emerged as biggest substitute to laptops. The mobile penetration is very high in Indian market. There are few segments Indian consumers who would often want to have mobile phone or tablet with an Internet connection rather than a laptop. Industry rivalry: The industry rivalry is high in the industry. The competition is really in this industry. HP and Sony are big name in Indian market and captures a good amount of market. Four corner analysis Porter's four corners model is a predictive tool designed by Michael Porter that helps in determining a competitor's course of action. The four corner of Porters four models can be discussed as: Motivation Drivers This helps in determining competitor's action by understanding their goals and current position. A gap between these two would mean that competitor is likely to reach to the external threats. A narrow gap could mean that competitor would have a defensive strategy (David David, 2014). In Indian context, the gap is high as HP is one of the largest player in Indian market. Motivation Management Assumptions This corner focuses on perception of competitor about its strengths and weaknesses, culture, belief and goals, etc. (Landoni Dell'Era, 2016). Dell India is a known player in Indian laptop market; however, it cannot ignore the competition as competition is high. Actions Strategy It means the strategy with which the competitor is operating in the market. It could be cost leadership strategy, product differentiation or any other strategy. The players like Apple and Sony focuses on product differentiation in Indian market. The players like HP, Lenovo focuses on cost leadership in Indian market. Actions capabilities It means the ability of competitor to respond to external threats and external forces. The competitors like HP, IBM, Apple are big names that can address external threats very swiftly. These companies have deep pockets and high risk appetite to keep continue in the Indian market (Gormley, 2010). Value chain analysis Dell being in the elaboration stage; which is a do or die stage for most organizations. As they are pressured to adjust to the industry overall as a whole the organizations have taken a major hit on the side of profitability. In this stage of elaboration this is critical because of the moral of the company. Management may be challenged to adjust to a more organic style of management, which would be great however, it may be too late for Dell, Inc. However, they could try the collectivity stage where its the responsibility of leaders and marketing managers to take all the people together (Purkayastha, 2016). It is important to mention that revisiting the vision and the mission may require if Dell changes its product lines. The marketing activities at Dell can also change based on the vision and mission and this can only be successful if top level management are open to the input from its lower level employees. Recommendations The key recommendations for Dell Inc. can be discussed as: Dell should certainly increase its focus in the emerging markets. Trying a new market such as corporate mighty be a good experience however, with HP as a competitor its going to be difficult to keep up (David David, 2014). Dell India is doing good and it is recommended that Dell Inc. should increase its focus on its Indian subsidiary. It is recommended that Dell India must continue its path of cost leadership. The customers in the Indian market are cautious about the pricing of the product. Therefore, a good strategy for Dell India in Indian market would be to use the cost leadership strategy. Dell must invest on its research and development. In this industry, the product lifecycle is low and every year there are new and upgraded products in the market. It is critical to keep an eye on the emerging markets and then develop the firm level strategy (Abraham, 2013). Conclusion The above paper discusses the strategic analysis for Dell India. The Dell Inc. scenario is a good example of a company that had great performance when the personal computer was introduced. However, it appears that the company was having internal struggles with the demands regarding the growth of the computer industry. The paper highlights that firms must have a control over its internal factors and a close watch over the external factors. Dell, Inc. by seeing this lack of alignment between its structure and process, decided to be flexible by changing its structure. That might be the best chance Dell has to get ahead of its larger tech rivals like HP. It is important that Dell must continue its strategy and focus to keep moving forward in the tough market condition. References Abraham, S. (2013). Will business model innovation replace strategic analysis?.Strategy Leadership,41(2), 31-38. Bull, J. W., Jobstvogt, N., Bhnke-Henrichs, A., Mascarenhas, A., Sitas, N., Baulcomb, C., ... Carter-Silk, E. (2016). Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats: A SWOT analysis of the ecosystem services framework.Ecosystem services,17, 99-111. Colombo, G., DellEra, C., Frattini, F., Landoni, P. (2016). Understanding virtual knowledge brokers and their differences with traditional ones.International Journal of Innovation Management,20(01), 1650015. David, M. E., David, F. R., David, F. R. (2014). Mission statement theory and practice: A content analysis and new direction.International Journal of Business, Marketing Decision Science,7(1), 95-110. Greco, M., Cricelli, L., Grimaldi, M. (2013). A strategic management framework of tangible and intangible assets.European Management Journal,31(1), 55-66. Gormley, T. A. (2010). The impact of foreign bank entry in emerging markets: Evidence from India.Journal of Financial Intermediation,19(1), 26-51. Kiron, D., Kruschwitz, N., Haanaes, K., Reeves, M., Goh, E. (2013). The innovation bottom line.MIT Sloan Management Review,54(3), 1. Landoni, P., Dell'Era, C., Ferraloro, G., Peradotto, M., Karlsson, H., Verganti, R. (2016). Design Contribution to the Competitive Performance of SMEs: The Role of Design Innovation Capabilities.Creativity and Innovation Management,25(4), 484-499. Purkayastha, A., Sharma, S. (2016). Gaining competitive advantage through the right business model: analysis based on case studies.Journal of Strategy and Management,9(2), 138-155.

Friday, November 29, 2019

10 Useful Tips for a Speech about Your Life

10 Useful Tips for a Speech about Your Life Have been told to give a speech about yourself and searching for material to use? If yes, then you are in the right place. There are many incidents in your life which you can focus your speech on. Unfortunately, that’s easier said than done. The truth is that to write a truly great speech, you need inspiration. And that spark won’t just light itself in your head. To get your mental juices running, you need tips that guide you to the right path. Here are some great tips which you can use to write an excellent speech about your life: Steve Jobs gave the Stanford commencement speech and told everyone that settling down is very mainstream. He was the co-founder of Apple but later on he was kicked out of his own company. He claims that that was the best thing that ever happened to him because that pushed him to explore new paths. He became so diversified that Apple had to rehire him. Apple has since created ground breaking laptops, computers and of course the phone that changed the face of regular handhelds, the iPhone. Steve Job’s life story was a clear proof that he never settled for anything less than what he deserved. He became one of the most iconic and influential figures in the modern day technological era. JK Rowling, who’s the author of the now-famous Harry Potter series, initially faced a lot of hurdles. The idea of Harry Potter was turned down by several publishers. Her speech at Harvard University was around the very idea of the benefits of failure. She said in clear words that what she feared most at a young age was not poverty, but failure. JK Rowling said that she felt extremely sad when she was suffering from failures, but she believes that those very failures helped her strip away the inessential. She took a lesson out of her own life and wrote a beautiful speech, she told everyone that we don’t need magic to change the world because everything we need is already inside us. Especially the power of imagination. Jim Carrey gave the commencement speech at Maharishi University and, as expected, it went viral. In his speech he told everyone that even if someone plans their life safely, they can still fail, so it’s better to go big or go home. Jim then tells a tale about his own father wanting to become a comedian but decided to go about life in a financially secure manner and ended up being an accountant. His father played it safe but he was fired and the family ended up being extremely poor anyway. David Foster gave an everlasting speech at the graduation ceremony of Kenyon College. His speech became so iconic that it was translated into various forms of literature. The author put his own imagination and experiences in the speech by telling everyone that they are all part of a gigantic and constantly changing interaction of life forms. David emphasized on the point that it is important to step out of our comfort zones and interact with others, even if it’s extremely unpleasant, to truly experience life. David suffered from depression and his life-story ended on a very bleak note but this speech may have been his answer to everyone who felt like him. Comedian Stephen Colbert gave a terrific speech at Northwestern University that was full of improvisation and humor. His entire speech was surrounded around the emphasis that life cannot be planned. And where did he get such good material to talk about? His own life. Mr. Colbert told the young graduates that life is good at throwing curve balls on a daily basis. According to him, the most successful people are those who can improvise and deal with life on-the-go. He gave examples out of his own life as well, telling people that life is just like improv-comedy. You don’t know what’s next, but you roll with the punches. Admiral William H McRaven gave one of the most iconic speeches at the University of Texas at Austin which was based entirely upon his own life experiences. The Admiral refers to the advantages of various routines that are forced upon new navy recruits. He tells people that every morning in basic SEAL training, every time the instructors came in the barracks in the morning they would inspect the bed. According to him, this mundane task seemed unnecessary at the time but eventually proved to be beneficial to him. If we all make our bed every morning, we will feel a sense of accomplishment. This one task completed will start a chain reaction of completion of various other tasks throughout the day. Simply putting it, he said everything that he achieved in his life was because he believed that if little things can’t be done properly, the bigger ones won’t be done at all. Kurt Vonnegut gave the commencement speech at Agnes Scott College and talked about how important it is to never worry about the small things that happen in life. Once again it’s evident that a very well-constructed and inspirational speech was given while keeping personal life in perspective. Mr. Kurt told the youngsters that in order to live a happy life, one must learn to let things go. He simply told the kids that you shouldn’t expect people to forgive you if you yourself don’t have the capacity to forgive others. He emphasized on the point that it is extremely unhealthy to live your life while having a personal vendetta in your heart. Neil Gaiman gave a commencement speech at the University of the Arts. As Mr. Gaiman is well-known for his work in various literary mediums including journalism, novels and comic books, he decided to make a speech on how distracting the success can be. He told everyone how his success forced him to deviate from his work and that instead of replying to a plethora of fan-mails he should have written more. His message was that no matter how much success you attain; you should never let people stand in the way of the things you love to do. Barack Obama gave an impressive keynote speech at the 2004 Democratic National Convention. The core theme of this speech was all about how anyone, if dedicated enough, can beat the odds. He talked about his own life where he never had the support or the confidence of his peers that he would make it this far. Four years later he became the president of the United States of America. Bill Murray is one of the most iconic comedians of this and the previous century. He once had crashed a bachelor party and gave an extremely insightful speech. Bill tells the bachelors to travel the world with the girl he wants to marry and go to places which are extremely difficult for tourists and if you make it back to the states still loving each other, then she is the one for you. What he meant to say is that it is easy to love when the circumstances are easy and less challenging. And we bet that Bill must have given this speech based on his own life experiences. So that’s it. We believe you can use these tips to help you write a good speech about you or your life. Whether it’s a commencement speech or a bachelor party, the idea remains the same. We will even be helping you out with the topics and a complete guide on this genre which you can read in the next articles. References: About MUM. (n.d.). Retrieved April 28, 2016, from Everlasting Speech Alumni Bulletin Kenyon College. (n.d.). Retrieved April 28, 2016, from Jacobs, P. (2015). A Navy SEAL commander told students to make their beds in the best graduation speech of 2014. Retrieved April 28, 2016, from Neil Gaiman: Keynote Address 2012. (n.d.). Retrieved April 28, 2016, from Northwestern University. (n.d.). Retrieved April 28, 2016, from Text of J.K. Rowling’s speech. (n.d.). Retrieved April 28, 2016, from Text of Steve Jobs Commencement address (2005). (2005). Retrieved April 28, 2016, from